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The connection of philosophies in Ayurveda is rooted in Sankhya Darshana (Philosophy). The origin of Universe and the origin of human beings all has been well described in Sankhya philosophy and Ayurveda depends upon these principles to explain its physiology. Our article for this month focuses on this base of creation of Universe according to Sankhya Darshana. Sankhya relies on the three Pramaanas or proofs namely the pratyaksha (perception), Anumaana (inference) and Aapta Vaakya (time-tested words of learned and realized seers). The article is well written by Dr.

Sangeetha Rajah and it was first published at We sincerely acknowledge these resources.

We heartily welcome your suggestion on our newsletter how to make it more useful and knowledgeable.

Dr. Rajesh Kotecha 'Vaidya', M.D. (Ayurveda)
Chakrapani Ayurveda Clinic and Research Center


Saankhya Darsana by Dr. Sangeetha Rajah




Saankhya believes that the knowledge that discriminates between the world of causes and the world of effects is a liberating knowledge. Two ultimate eternal realities are recognised in this system, viz.; Purusha, the Spirit and prakriti, the Nature / Maya. Besides these two there are twenty-three other elements that form this universe. These evolve from Prakriti whereas Purusha is non-matter or pure spirit.  These 25 principles are responsible for the structure of the universe on all levels.
Creation of this universe begins with Iswara Iccha or the desire /will of God.  Purusha is the soul or spirit and is the witness to anything and everything of this universe. Purusha is the knower, the known and the object of knowledge.  He is manly, omnipresent, omniscient, but does not get involved in any kind of action with regard to creation, sustenance and dissolution of this universe.
Prakrti, on the other hand, is the doer of all actions, is feminine, and is involved in creation, sustenance and dissolution of this universe.  Without Purusha, Prakrti becomes incapable of creation. Prakrti is Maya, the cause of all the miseries and actions.

Purusha is the first principle and Prakrti the second one.  Without the union of Purusha and Prakrti, creation cannot take place.  Purusha and Prakrti combine to form the Avyakta.   From Avyakta is formed the third principle Mahat or Buddhi, the cosmic intelligence. The universe first arises as a meditation of the cosmic intelligence and only later takes on form externally. Mahat is Prakrti molded by the will of God.
The fourth principle Ahamkaara arises from Mahat. Ahamkaara is the Ego principle, the power of division inherent in nature and a stage of evolution.  Under the focus of ego, the three basic gunas (qualities) of nature Satva, Rajas and Tamas, diversify into three groups of five – the five senses, the five organs of action, the mind and the subtle forms of the five basic elements.
From Saatvika and Raajasika ahamkaara, arise the five senses namely the organs of sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing and the five organs of action the hands, feet, organs of speech, excretion and reproduction.  The mind is also evolved.
From Taamasika and Raajasika ahamkaara, evolve the subtle form of the five basic elements called the Pancha Tanmaatras. The five tanmaatras are the Prthivi tanmaatra , Ap tanmaatra, Tejas tanmaatra, Vaayu tanmaatra and Aakaasa tanmaatra.  From these tanmaatras evolve the five basic elements Prthivi, Ap, Tejas, Vaayu and Aakaasa in their gross and subtle forms.  Thus the universe is created.

The  cause and effect are the undeveloped and developed states of one and the same substance. There is no such thing as total destruction. In destruction, the effect is absorbed into its cause. That is all.  At the time of destruction or dissolution, the five mahabhutas merge into their respective tanmaatras and the latter into Ahamkaara.  Similarly, the 5 senses, 5 organs of action and the mind merge into Ahamkaara.  The Ahamkaara becomes one with the Mahat and the latter with Avyakta.  Then Purusha and Prakrti separate and that is the end of the universe.

Iswara Krishna, in his Saankhya Kaarika, states that by mere understanding and the knowledge of the 25 principles of Saankhya, one can attain Moksha, irrespective of his varna and aasrama.  Contemplating on the 25 principles, we understand that everything in the universe and in fact the universe itself is transient.  Only Purusha or God is permanent.  Gradual detachment from worldly affairs and material life takes place, resulting in the absorption into Brahman.


Ayurveda relies on the Saankhya system  for its principles on creation and dissolution of this universe. Important Ayurvedic texts like the Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita deal with the principles of Saankhya in detail. Understanding Ayurveda and its essence with regard to the herbs and their qualities, diseases and their nature, treatment and its principles becomes easier only when the principles of Saankhya are contemplated upon. In short, the basics of Ayurveda - the tridosha and the Paanchabhautika theories - are may be understood through Saankhya. 

Interesting Health News Of The Month


Yogi Astounds Indian Scientists

AHMEDABAD, INDIA, May 10, 2010: An 83-year-old Indian holy man who says he has spent seven decades without food or water has astounded a team of military doctors who studied him during a two-week observation period. Prahlad Jani spent a fortnight in a hospital in the western India state of Gujarat under constant surveillance from a team of 30 medics equipped with cameras and closed circuit television. During the period, he neither ate nor drank and did not go to the toilet.

The long-haired and bearded yogi was sealed in a hospital in the city of Ahmedabad in a study initiated by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), the state defense and military research institute. The DRDO hopes that the findings, set to be released in greater detail in several months, could help soldiers survive without food and drink, assist astronauts or even save the lives of people trapped in natural disasters.

“We still do not know how he survives,” neurologist Sudhir Shah told reporters after the end of the experiment. “It is still a mystery what kind of phenomenon this is.” “If Jani does not derive energy from food and water, he must be doing that from energy sources around him, sunlight being one,” said Shah. “As medical practitioners we cannot shut our eyes to possibilities, to a source of energy other than calories.”

Jani has since returned to his village near Ambaji in northern Gujarat where he will resume his routine of yoga and meditation. He says that he was blessed by a goddess at a young age, which gave him special powers

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